ARC September 2005 General Meeting Minutes


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Written by Phantom Phish <u>ARC General Meeting Minutes</u>

Date: 20 Sept. 2005
Location: Palisades Conference Center at West Paces, Atlanta, GA
Minutes by: Chris Clark (Secretary)

This monthÂ’s General Meeting was held at the Palisades Conference Center, where the office of Steve Shindell (ARC President) is located.
Prior to the meeting, attendees were able to view Steve’s office tank. In addition, representatives of “Everclear Transparency Refurbishing” were present and gave a demonstration on the use of their products to polish out scratches in acrylic tanks. More information on the products and services provided by Everclear Transparency Refurbishing, whose offices are located in Austin, Texas, can be found at"></a>.

1. 7:40 pm: Meeting called to order by Steve Shindell (ARC President).

2. Minutes of the previous General Meeting (10 August 2005) were approved by majority vote of the members present.

3. <u>[B]September Powerbuy[/B]</u>
Atlanta Aquaria has agreed to sponsor the September Powerbuy, and are offering fish at a reduced cost, including 6-line wrasses, CarpenterÂ’s Fairy Wrasses, and Black Percula Clowns. See the ARC forum on the TRT website ([IMG]"></a>) for details.

4. <u>[B]MACNA[/B]</u>
The MACNA conference was held earlier this month in the Washington DC area, with a number of ARC members attending. Most ( [IMG]" alt="" /> ), attendees seemed to enjoy the meeting, and Lisa OÂ’Connor was the lucky winner of a new tank.

5. [B]<u>SaltWater U 2</u>[/B]
Plans for next year's SWU2 are already underway, with dates set for May 3, 4 and 5 (GrayÂ’s Reef) and May 5, 6 and 7 (Georgia Aquarium).
There are currently 43 ARC members on the SWU2 committee, but more help is needed. Interested volunteers should contact Margi Shindell (SWU Committee Chair). Many of the speakers for this event have already been confirmed, and this years list again consists of many well known luminaries in the marine aquarium hobby and industry, including Eric Borneman, Anthony Calfo, Bob Fenner, Bruce Carlson, Walt Smith, Steven Pro, Ray Davis, and hopefully Sylvia Earle, among others.

6. [B]<u>Georgia Aquarium Opening
</u>[/B]There is likely to be at least three “Opening Days” for the Georgia Aquarium, which may affect the ARC’s plans for attending the opening events as a group. Club members interested in attending these opening events should follow the threads posted on the ARC’s forum of TRT for details and announcements.

Pledges for GA donations have exceeded our ARC goal of $10,000. Many thanks to all who so generously donated.

7. [B]<u>Octoberfest in South Carolina</u>[/B]
We are still working with Tom Wyatt for the planned Octoberfest next month. Again, please watch the TRT website for details and announcements.

8. [B]<u>2006 ARC Calendar and Photo Contest</u>[/B]
The Photo Contest for the 2006 ARC Calendar will begin soon. All interested participants are encouraged to get their entries ready.

9. [B]<u>Elections for Club Officers</u>[/B]
The elections for the 2006 ARC Club Officers will be held in November, with nominations to begin next month. Volunteers are needed to run for the offices of President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. Interested ARC members should contact current or past board members for details on the requirements of any particular office.

10. [B]<u>Announcement regarding trading with WAMAS</u>[/B]
Ray OÂ’Connor (ARC Trustee) announced that the Washington Area Marine Aquarium Society (WAMAS) has expressed an interest in establishing a program with the ARC for the trading of corals, in order to foster aquaculture techniques and to help make this hobby more self sustaining and less reliant on collections of wild colonies. Details of this trading program have not been worked out as yet, but interested parties are encouraged to contact Ray OÂ’Connor.

11. [B]<u>Raffles</u>[/B]
Raffle tickets were available for purchase at this meeting, and the lucky winners took the following items home:
a) Kent Nautilus Skimmer and Ocean Runner Pump
b) Signed copy of Scott Michaels “Marine Fish” book
c) Five copies of the MACNA calendar
d) Three MACNA T-shirts
e) Six copies of “Tropical Fish Hobbyist”
f) Fourteen sets of Oceans Blend Calcium Supplement, parts A and B

12. The business portion of the meeting concluded at approximately 8:00 pm, at which time Steve Shindell introduced the guest speaker for tonightÂ’s meeting, Dana Riddle.

[B]<u><span style="font-size: 14px;">Dana Riddle Presentation</span></u>[/B]

Dana Riddle is well known in the marine aquarium hobby for his extensive research in various areas of coral biology, and for his authorship of numerous articles on aquarium lighting and photosynthesis. Much of the work published in his articles was conducted near his home in Hawaii. In his discussion this evening, Dana highlighted a number of the research projects he has worked on, and presented some of his findings on coral photosynthesis and aquarium lighting and husbandry.
The following are few highlights of the data he presented.

1. [B]<u>Effects of narrow bandwidth light sources on coral hosts and zooxanthellae pigments</u>[/B]
It has been stated in the hobby literature that corals often produce protective pigments in response to strong light, and that corals can undergo color shifts in response to changes in the spectral quality of the light illuminating them. It is also often claimed that some colors in corals can only be maintained under certain (usually high) Kelvin lamps. In order to investigate these claims, a simple experiment was devised to test the hypothesis that relatively narrow bandwidths of light can play a role in inducing colorful coral pigments.
In the experiment, red and blue LED lamps were used to selectively illuminate portions of genetically identical coral for 6 weeks. What Dana found was that, areas illuminated by the blue LEDÂ’s indeed did increase coloration and turned pink, while areas of the coral that were lit exclusively by the red LEDÂ’s underwent bleaching (loss of zooxanthellae). These results were consistent across several runs of this experiment, and the findings seem to imply that there may be some truth to the idea that higher Kelvin lamps do indeed help induce coral coloration, as long as light intensity is also maintained.

2. [B]<u>Light Intensity and Photosynthetic Saturation</u>[/B]
In this set of experiments Dana attempted to address the question of whether itÂ’s possible to have too much light over a reef aquarium, and more specifically, whether increasing the amount of PAR available to a coral always results in increased photosynthetic activity. A yellow-green Porites coral was used as the research subject, which was illuminated by light of increasing PAR value. While the PAR value was increased, the corals photosynthetic activity was monitored by measuring the electron transfer rate that occurs during photosynthesis. By plotting the electron transfer rate (and indirectly the rate of photosynthesis in the coral) against the PAR value of the light illuminating the coral, Dana was able to show that photosynthesis did increase with increasing PAR, but only to a certain point (a saturation point), and after that point was passed, photosynthetic activity actually began to decrease. This saturation point seemed to occur at a PAR of about 160 micromoles/m2/sec, and led Dana to believe that we only need a PAR of about 100-150 micromoles/m2/sec at the bottom of our tanks to obtain maximum photosynthetic activity from our corals, and increasing the PAR beyond this point probably doesnÂ’t provide any additional benefit to the coral. Interestingly, clams, particularly T. maxima, didnÂ’t show this saturation effect. Hence, as opposed to corals, clams may continue to receive additional photosynthetic benefit from increasing PAR values.

3. [B]<u>Aquarium Lighting and Heat Transfer to Corals</u>[/B]
In this experiment, Dana wanted to investigate whether there was selective transfer of heat to coral colonies from aquarium light sources. Using an infrared thermometer (capable of taking spot temperature measurements), temperatures were recorded concurrently from various points in the aquarium water column and from the coral colonies themselves, and plotted against time (photoperiod). What Dana found was that with increasing time of illumination (photoperiod), the temperature of the coral colonies was increasing over and above the temperature of the surrounding water column. These findings imply that the water temperatures we usually monitor in our aquariums are under estimating the actual temperature the corals are being exposed to in our brightly lit reef tanks.

4. [B]<u>Coral zooxanthellae content and light intensity</u>[/B]
In these studies, an attempt was made to determine whether or not the amount of zooxanthellae within a coral was a function of light intensity, or if the spectral quality of the light that illuminates a coral plays a role in zooxanthellae populations. In the study, corals were exposed to light of either low intensity, or high intensity, and the spectral quality (color temperature) was varied. Acetone extracts of chlorophyll a were then performed, as an indirect measure of the zooxanthellae content within the corals. Dana observed that the chlorophyll a content of the corals (and presumably the zooxanthellae content) increased over time in corals under low intensity lighting, and chlorophyll a decreased under high intensity lighting. Varying the spectral quality of the light did not seem to effect chlorophyll content. These findings imply that corals can regulate their zooxanthellae populations as a function of the light intensity, but that the color temperature of the light probably has little effect on zooxanthellae populations.

5. After taking many questions from the audience in attendance, Dana concluded his excellent discussion, and the meeting was adjourned at approximately 9:00 pm.

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